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It is the process of keeping the computer cool by dissipating heat into surrounding. This heat can be produced by different components of system unit. If these components are not cool down, these will get hot and it can lead to the failure of that component. Mostly heat is produced by following three components:
- Central processing unit.
- Graphics card.
Different types of methods and devices are used to cool down these components. These devices include heat sinks and fans etc. Most of the computers are designed to produce as little heat as possible. But some amount of heat is produced by all types of computers.
CPU is main heat generator in most of computers. Heat generation can be reduced to acceptable limit by making the design more efficient, but this act can also affect the efficiency of a computer. Mostly, the temperature of computer components rise till reaching thermal equilibrium. At this stage, the temperature of the component and the surrounding becomes same. In general, the temperature of any component must not exceed a specific value, because if it happens, it can lead to the malfunctioning of that component.
There are also some hurdles which can hinder the cooling process. These are following:
- Dust: It can act as thermal insulator, thus it will affect the heat exchange. Hence, it can reduce the performance of cooling devices of computer.
- Air Flow: If fans are not properly placed, The cooling air will flow out the system without passing over the hot components. Thus, it can also lead to malfunctioning of a component.
Different Methods Of Cooling:
Many methods are used to keep the components of a computer cool. Some of them are following:
Computer Fan :
A computer fan is a fan which is mounted on computer or at any component of a computer, to keep it cool by providing it with some air. There are two types of fans which are used in computer:
- A fan is mounted on the computer case, it brings the cooler air from outside environment into the system unit.
- Some fans are mounted on different components. These fans cools specifically that component to which they are attached, they have no concern with the cooling of other components. These include the fans which are mounted on CPU, chipset, graphics card and some hard disks as well.
It is a device which absorbs the heat from a component, it basically act as a
sink of heat i.e. it absorbs the heat evolving from a component. These are made
up of metals of high thermal conductivity and they have large surface area. The
heat which is absorbed by them, is carried away from them through the process of
convection or through air flow.
Now, liquid is also being used as a cooling method in desktop computers. The
most common used liquid used for cooling is water. Liquid cooling is more
effective than air cooling, because water has higher heat capacity and thermal
conductivity as compared to air. In this method, water flows through a block
mounted on CPU, water absorbs the heat emitting from CPU and then transfer it to
a heat exchanger which then release the heat into surrounding. Some desktop
computers also use heat pipes, these pipes contain liquid which absorbs heat
from different components of system unit and then liquid evaporates at the end
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